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Friday, August 6, 2021

About Big Bang Theory: What happened before time started?

 

About Big Bang Theory: What happened before time started?

This time in the Talk category session I will discuss About Big Bang Theory: What happened before time started?

Around what century AD, a philosopher, asked a philosophical question, asking: What did the creator do before Creation?

Interestingly, this question, even after 2 millennia have passed, is still being asked by physicists. Even scientists will wonder, what happened before the Big Bang? What happened before time started?

About Big Bang Theory: What happened before time started?

These questions certainly tickle reason and the answers, as these scientists put forward using scientific predictions, may be stranger than you think.

Number 1: Steady State Universe Theory

This theory, when first put forward, was in stark contrast to the Big Bang.

If the Big Bang says that the universe had a beginning even scientists also think that the universe will end through one of 4 scenarios, namely Big Rip, Big Freeze, Big Crunch, and Big Slurp, then the Steady State Theory states that the universe is not has a beginning and an end, just as the Universe has always existed and is eternal.

Of course, this theory is certainly outdated and is no longer taken seriously by physicists. Because they are well aware that the universe actually has a beginning and an end. But in the 21st century, British physicist Sir Roger Penrose revived this idea with a more modern twist.

In contrast to the Big Crunch theory, according to this theory, the universe continues to reincarnate following a cosmological cycle. The Big Bang happened and created this universe, then the created universe continued to expand until it reached a maximum point where the universe stopped expanding.

Then, the opposite happened. The universe, like a balloon that deflates, then shrinks, returns to its original size (back to its Unity). Then, Unity experienced another Big Bang and a similar process started all over again.

Now we can imagine, this recycling process occurs continuously and maybe the universe we live in is the umpteenth universe created. Please imagine that this universe has been cyclical since infinite time and will continue to experience it indefinitely.

In other words, this cycle has no beginning and no end. The universe only exists, without the need for a beginning and an end. But of course the truth of this theory is very difficult, or even impossible to prove.

Number 2: Fecund Universe Theory

For the next theories, we will step on the alternative theory of the Big Bang which does not mean the Big Bang is considered non-existent, but we will look at some of its variations.

One of the strangest theories is the theory that our universe is actually inside a black hole. Lee Smolin in 1992 through his book The Life in The Cosmos, followed by a physicist from Indiana University named Nikodem Poplawski, and a paper by Razieh Pourhasan et al in 2013 put forward a fantastic theory that inside black holes, actually lies a new universe.

So just imagine, our universe has billions of Black Holes and in them, hidden other universes. In other words, our universe is actually the home of the Multiverse.

But we can also apply that idea to us. What if we ourselves were also in a Black Hole in another universe? If it's true that we're inside the Black Hole, then that explains why we can't penetrate it outside and go to another parallel world.

Then how are other universes in which our Black Hole exists, we were created? Is it through Big Bang too? Of course, because of the Cosmic Sensor, this theory is also impossible to prove.

Number 3: Mother Universe Theory

Theoretically our universe is one of many in the Multiverse. This universe (together with us) floated into nothingness in the form of a bubble. So, where did the Multiverse bubble come from?

Sean Carroll, a physicist from the California Institute of Technology and colleague Jennifer Chen have an idea of ​​what happened before the Big Bang that they put forward in a paper in 2016.

They theorize about the existence of a Mother Universe which then exploded to produce Singularities or many Unity.

This oneness will become the universe we know today. But we are not alone. The Mother of the Universe produced many Unities, thus also gave birth to many universes. In other words, the Multiverse.

But where did the Universe Mother come from? Of course that is a new question that we must answer.

Number 4: Ekpyrotic Universe Theory

Paul Steinhardt, a physicist from Princeton University introduced an alternative theory of the Big Bang which is quite controversial which he called Ekpyrotic (from the word pyro which means fire or burning).

In this cosmological theory proposed in 2001, he tried to combine the Big Bang Theory with String Theory. But as we know, String Theory is a theory that requires the existence of 10 dimensions to explain our own existence. Whereas we, along with the whole universe, are trapped in the third dimension so that we cannot feel the existence of a higher dimension.

Well, back for a moment to the theory of the Mother Universe above. It is said that our universe along with other universes is in the form of a floating bubble. Well, have you ever thought about where our universe floats?

Paul explains, in theory, that our universe floats in a fourth-dimensional realm he calls mass. But here's where the theory is a little different. Within this mass, there are rows of brane (short for membrane) that move or vibrate forever.

Each of these brane is separated from each other, but because of its movement, there are times when the brane rub against each other. This brane touch is then called the Big Bang which eventually created the universe in which we live.

Uniquely, this theory, if true, requires that our universe is not round (bubble), but flat. Not surprisingly, the theory of the flat universe is called the Big Bang flat earth cosmological theory.

However, if this theory is correct, the question again arises that is difficult to answer, such as where did the brane come from? What created it? Since when has he been there? Do brane and bulk also have no beginning and end?

Number 5: White Hole Theory

In this ultimate theory, we will return to mysterious entities called Black Holes. When Einstein tried to explain gravity, he gave an easy picture using his always out of the box mind.

He described our universe as consisting of a fabric of reality which he called the fabric of space and time. An object with a large mass (say a star) in the structure of the universe would bend it.

Just imagine that you spread a wide cloth and throw a tennis ball on it. Of course the fabric will curl down, right?

Well, this is how Einstein tried to explain gravity. Because of this curvature, if another object approaches a large mass object, the second object will be attracted.

Say on a piece of cloth, we throw a ping pong ball or marble (which has a smaller mass and size), then the ball will slide towards the tennis ball that we throw. This is also why planets and other celestial bodies such as comets, meteors, and asteroids, will be attracted by the star's gravity.

Well, let's try replacing Star with Unity in a Black Hole. In contrast to stars that gain massive mass due to their enormous size, the singularities that make up black holes are actually very small, but very heavy.

Not surprisingly, anything that is too close to the Black Hole (the term passes the Event Horizon) will be sucked into it.

The question now is, what will happen to the objects that are sucked into the Black Hole? If it is true that black holes exist as Einstein described, should they eventually fill?

The food eaten by black holes is no joke, black holes can swallow planets to stars that are millions of times bigger than themselves. Then where did all the gigantic food that the black hole devoured?

The scientist then went back to thinking outside the box to solve the mystery, namely what if the Black Hole was actually in the form of a tunnel?

If so, then what lies at the end of the tunnel. Obviously the other end isn't another Black Hole. Because if they did, then all the mass they swallowed would accumulate in the middle. So scientists started to coin a new term: White Hole.

If an object were to enter a Black Hole, scientists hypothesize that whatever it swallowed would exit into a hole on the other side of the tunnel called the White Hole.

White Hole does not have to be white, the term is only to show that its nature is opposite to Black Hole. If no one can get out of the Black Hole, then in theory, no one can enter the White Hole.

If traced, this theory is very interesting. If the black hole is really the entrance to the tunnel, the exits don't have to be close together.

Like me stretching beneath the earth's surface, the tunnel could have slipped through the fabric of space and time (the fabric of the universe). If only he had appeared somewhere very far away, like millions of light years away. It is possible that everything that the Black Hole swallowed will appear on the other side of the universe.

In fact, a white hole doesn't have to be a black hole. Maybe far in the past or maybe in the future. Why?

Because according to Einstein's Theory of Relativity, the existence of gravity can play with time. Gravity alone can buy time. If a planet, for example, was orbiting just outside the Event Horizon, then the gravitational force from the Black Hole would make the planet move so fast it would cause time to slow down, known as time dilation.

It could be that one minute on the planet equals 1 year for us on Earth. Gravity is indeed the most mysterious force compared to the other 3 fundamental forces. If gravity is so omnipotent that it can bend space as Einstein did, then it's no surprise that gravity can bend time too.

With their ability to manipulate time, it's no wonder the Black Hole and White Hole (and the tunnel between them) are strong candidates for wormholes or time machines.

But the White Hole as a time machine is still a trivial thing when compared to the other great mysteries it has.

A paper by Alon Retter and Shlomo Heller in 2012 stated that the White Hole was the Big Bang. This theory can be an alternative to the Big Bang theory where the Big Bang was not actually caused by Unity exploding.

If you have studied the Big Bang process, then you will understand that suddenly all forces and all kinds of particles (quarks, gluons, electrons, antimatter, etc.) appeared in a fraction of a second.

What if all the force and matter that was suddenly born at the time of the Big Bang were really ejected by a white hole? What if all the forces and matter that make up our universe came from matter from other universes sucked in by black holes?

This theory will not only fundamentally change the basic principles of Cosmology because it denies the existence of Oneness and the Big Bang. Alon and Shlomo even call this the Little Bang, but it will also prove the existence of the Multi Universe.

In fact, this theory is closely related to the Fecund Universe theory regarding the new universe in the Black Hole earlier. Any matter that is sucked into a black hole will create a new universe (called a baby universe), in which every matter can be said to have originated from its parent universe.

This of course raises a new question, who is our parent universe? How was it made? Did it come from another Black Hole from our grandparents' universe? So, does a process have a beginning and an end?

This theory also has other implications. Instead of being a wormhole that can take us to another time in our universe, are black holes really gateways to other universes?

Conclusion

Of course all these theories never satisfy us. Every answer we try to put forward to the question of what happened before Creation seems to lead us to a deeper philosophical question.

Scientists are currently working on a theory called The Theory of Everything that will combine two seemingly opposite realities, namely Einstein's Theory of Relativity which deals with the macro world (our world, the stars, and the universe) with Quantum Theory which deals with the universe and the micro world, that is, the world of the behavior of very small particles).

One candidate for the Theory of Everything is String Theory, which physicists are studying.

I don't know, if we find a theory that can explain everything, maybe we will find all the answers to our questions.


That's my discussion this time About Big Bang Theory: What happened before time started?